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Apple’s Business Model and Sources of Competitive Advantage

Apple (NASDAQ: AAPL) apart from being a leading technology brand is also the first company in the world to have touched the market cap of $2 trillion. Despite the pandemic and the resulting economic turbulence, the market cap of Apple has kept growing. It is just an indication that its competitive advantage has grown a lot stronger over time. Founded by visionary Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, Apple has grown into the world’s most popular brand of smartphones and wearable devices. The credit of its popularity goes mainly to the company’s consistent focus on product quality and the pace at which innovation is carried out inside Apple. The business empire of Apple is spread throughout the world and it is a familiar name in most corners globally. The largest market of Apple products is the United States. Apple has its headquarters at Cupertino, California in the United States and is currently led by CEO Tim Cook.

 The fast-paced and aggressive culture of Apple has also undergone a major change under his leadership and even after the visionary leader Steve Jobs, the company has been growing very fast under Tim Cook’s leadership. In fact, Jobs would have felt very proud to see his company in its current shape. In this regard, Apple has been performing better than analysts’ predictions and apart from faster growth in its market cap, the company’s financial performance has also remained strong over the last several years. The release of the iPhone 11 also drove impressive growth in sales and revenue. Moreover, Apple has become the leading and most reliable brand of wearable devices. 

The business of Apple has several sustainable sources of competitive advantage. Its competitive advantage has also kept growing stronger over the years primarily due to its focus on technological innovation and customer experience. The business model of Apple is also hailed among one of the world’s strongest. Its business model enables faster innovation and is highly resilient, which offers the company a stronger edge against rivals. Here we will discuss the business model of Apple, its core strengths, and how it has helped the company achieve solid business growth and faster international expansion. Apart from its focus on innovation, Apple’s business success also depends on some other pillars like its sales and distribution, marketing strategy, and supply chain management.

Business/Product Segments of Apple

Apple has brought a large product range to the market, including computing products, smartphones, wearable devices, and a large range of services. Overall based on product segments, Apple has divided its business into five segments: iPhone, Mac, iPad, wearables, home, and accessories, as well as services.

The above graph shows the net sales of Apple Inc by product segment in billions of US dollars for 2018 and 2019.


Based on revenue, the iPhone constitutes the largest product segment of Apple Inc. It is Apple’s line of smartphones that operate on Apple’s iOS operating system. In September 2019, Apple introduced three new iPhone models including iPhone 11, iPhone 11 Pro, and iPhone 11 Pro Max. The iPhone is also the largest source of revenue for the company. Apple makes most of its money from the sales of iPhones globally. In 2019 while Apple’s sales of iPhones reduced overall, picking only in the last quarter with the introduction of the iPhone 11 model, it also experienced revenue growth across other product segments. In 2019, when Apple experienced a net decline of around 14% in iPhone sales, the net share of iPhone in Apple’s revenue was around 54%. Apple generated $142.4 billion from iPhone sales in 2019 compared to $164.9 billion in 2018.


Mac is the company’s line of personal computers based on the macOS operating system from the house of Apple. The company released some new models of Mac in 2019. It released a new version of Macbook Air and a new Mac Mini and introduced a new and updated Mac Pro. Based on the net sales in 2019, Mac is the third-largest source of revenue for Apple. In 2019, the net share of Mac in the net revenue of Apple was close to 10%. Apple’s net revenue from the sales of Mac in 2019 was $25.7 billion compared to $25.2 billion in 2018, implying a net drop of 2% in Apple’s Mac revenues.


 iPad is a line of multipurpose tablets introduced by Apple that operate on the iPadOS operating system the company introduced during 2019. In 2019, the sales of iPad picked up because the company introduced some new versions of iPad, including two new versions of iPad pro as well as iPad Air, an iPad mini, and a new 10.2 inch iPad.  Based on the net revenue it generates, the iPad is the smallest product segment of Apple. However, the net revenue of Apple from iPad sales experienced sharp growth during 2019 as compared to 2018. In 2019, the net sales of iPad experienced a rise of 16% compared to the previous year. Apple’s net revenue from iPad sales in 2019 reached $21.3 billion compared to $18.4 billion in 2018. In this way, even if the iPad is not a leading driver of sales and revenue for Apple, its impact on the company’s overall earnings is significant.

Wearables, home and accessories:

This segment includes a large range of products including products from the house of Apple and third parties. It includes AirPods, Apple TV, Apple Watch, Beats products, HomePod, iPod touch, and other Apple-branded and third-party accessories. Airpods are wireless headphones developed by Apple that interact with Siri. Apple introduced AirPods Pro in October 2019. Another major attraction in this segment is the Apple Watch. It runs on the Watch OS that Apple developed specifically for small devices. Apart from that, it also includes several other innovative technologies developed by Apple. The company introduced its Apple Watch Series 5 in September 2019.

This segment has experienced rapid growth during the last two years. In 2019, this segment experienced a growth of around 41% compared to the previous year. Net revenue of Apple Inc from the sales of wearables, home, and accessories grew to $24.5 billion in 2019 from $17.4 billion in 2018. In this way, this segment became the fourth largest product segment of Apple based on revenue.


The services segment of Apple has grown fast to become a leading source of revenue for the company. Of the total net revenue of Apple in 2019, this segment accounted for around 18%. This segment is also expected to grow faster compared to others in the near future. This segment is a large segment that includes several services. Apple operates several platforms that allow people to access and download digital content including music, podcast, games, videos, and books. These digital platforms operated by Apple include the App Store, the Mac Apple Store, the TV App store, and the Watch App store. The App Store is available for iPhones and iPads. Apart from that, the company also offers subscription-based services including Apple Music and Apple TV+.  After a free seven days trial, Apple TV+ costs just $4.99 per month. Other services that are a part of this segment include Apple Care, iCloud, licensing, and other services. 

Based on the 2019 net revenue, the services segment is the second-largest contributor to the company’s total net revenue. The services revenue of Apple experienced a growth of around 16% in 2019. As a result, the company generated a net $46.3 billion in 2019 from services sales compared to $39.75 billion in 2018.

Geographical Segments of Apple Inc.

Apple manages its business mainly on a geographic basis. The company’s reportable segments include the Americas, Europe, Greater China, and the rest of the Asia Pacific. While the products and services sold by Apple in all the geographical segments are nearly the same, the company manages its geographical segments separately. This aligns the company strategy and operations better with the local industry environment and laws and cater to the customers’ needs and the distribution partners more effectively. Moreover, the market dynamics vary from country to country and region to region and so operating the business on a geographical basis offers some distinct advantages.


Based on the net revenue it generated in the year 2019, this segment is the largest geographical segment of Apple Inc. The Americas include both North and South America. Net Sales of Apple in 2019 from the Americas reached $116.9 billion from $112 billion in 2018. The main factors that drove the growth in net sales from the Americas include growth in net sales of services as well as wearable, home, and accessories. However, the growth in net revenue from the Americas segment in 2019 was also offset partially by the drop in sales of iPhones. Apart from that, there was a negative impact of a stronger US dollar compared to the foreign currencies on the net sales of Apple from the Americas segment during 2019. 


The Europe geographical segment of Apple Inc includes the European countries as well as India, the Middle East and Africa. In all the geographical regions excluding the Americas and the rest of Asia Pacific, the net sales of Apple took a hit and declined in 2019 compared to the previous year. Apple’s total net sales in Europe declined by around 3% in 2019 compared to the previous year. The decline in net sales in Europe was primarily due to lower net sales of iPhones compared to the previous year. However, to some extent the higher sales of services as well as wearables, home and accessories offset the decline due to drop in net sales of iPhones. Europe generated $60.3 billion in net sales in 2019 compared to $62.4 billion in 2018. A stronger US dollar also had a significant negative impact on the net sales of Apple in Europe. 

Greater China:

The Greater China geographical segment of Apple includes China as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. During 2019, the Greater China segment also experienced a significant decline in net sales compared to the previous year. The decline in Greater China was more severe than in the other regions. The total net sales of Apple in Greater China declined by 16% in 2019 compared to 2018. Net sales of the iPhone were weaker in Greater China during 2019 as compared to the previous year. However, the higher sales of services and wearables, homes, and accessories offset the decline in net sales partially. Apart from that, a stronger dollar worldwide also hurt the net sales of Apple in Greater China. 

Rest of Asia Pacific:

The rest of the Asia Pacific geographical segment includes Australia and those geographical areas in the Asia Pacific region that are not included in the other geographical segments of Apple Inc.  Apple enjoyed a small growth in net sales in this region during 2019 mainly due to higher sales of services as well as wearables, home, and accessories. However, the growth in net sales was partially offset by the lower sales of the iPhone in the region. There was a growth of 2% in the net sales of Apple Inc in the region in 2019 compared to the previous year. Apple’s net sales in the rest of Asia pacific rose to $17.8 billion in 2019 compared to $17.4 billion in 2018.  A stronger dollar worldwide also had an unfavorable impact on the net sales of Apple in the rest of Asia Pacific.

Competitive Advantage in the Business Model of Apple

Apple’s winning business model is supported by several sources of competitive advantage. Since its foundation, the company is known for its fast-paced innovation and focus on product quality as well as customer experience. However, Apple’s moat has continued to grow stronger with time as its financial position has continued to strengthen and the company has continued to expand its presence worldwide in all the leading markets. Here are some of the leading sources of competitive advantage of Apple that are also the main drivers of performance for the company.

Technological Innovation:

Research and development is not just a source of competitive advantage for the company but also one of the primary drivers of performance that have helped it find better growth and develop its market position compared to the rival brands.

Apple invests a large sum each year in research and development. It continues to update its existing product models including hardware and software as well as services. The range of services offered by Apple has grown a lot in recent years and so has its revenue from services as well as wearables and accessories. Apple is known for its fast-paced innovation right since its early days. Steve Jobs apart from his tight control of affairs inside Apple was also known for his focus and penchant for innovation. As a result, the company continued to gain growth momentum and also strengthen its customer base worldwide.

In 2019, the research and development expenditure of Apple grew to $16.22 billion compared to $14.24 billion in 2018; a net growth of around 14% in the R&D expenses. The technology industry is marked by intense competition and apart from being the driver of performance, it is also the leading differentiator that has helped the company achieve a significant edge over the competitors. As the web of services provided by Apple has continued to grow, the company is also investing more in research and development.


Apple is also known as one of the leading marketers in the world. Steve Jobs, the founder of the company was known for his distinctive approach to marketing. He did not just position his brand uniquely but also worked to help Apple build an identity that was distinct and differentiated from all other brands in the world of technology. While Apple does not reveal its marketing and advertising related expenditure in its annual report, the company announced in its 2019 form 10K that its SG&A expenses, mainly driven by growth in its marketing and advertising expenses. Apple focuses heavily on product quality and word of mouth as well as publicity are among the leading marketing channels for the company.

Each product and event at Apple receives heavy media coverage owing to the company’s market-leading position and the hype around Apple products as well as the personality of its founder Steve Jobs. However, the company also spends on marketing and advertising for demand creation. Apple also does a lot of marketing through its stores worldwide. The use of digital channels by the company including its own e-commerce site has grown a lot in recent years. Other promotional channels utilized by Apple include Twitter and YouTube mainly. However, due to the strong hype surrounding Apple and Steve Jobs, the company always remains in the eyes of the media.

Customer Experience:

Customer experience has remained a central focus of Apple right since it was founded. Steve Jobs focused heavily on both the quality and design of products made by Apple. Apart from that, his focus on customer experience in other aspects including sales and marketing was equally intense. It was due to his obsession with a highly differentiated and unique customer experience that Apple is known as a highly customer-focused company right since its early days.

Despite so much growth and its market-leading position, the focus of the company on customer experience has not dwindled. It is also a reason that the popularity of the brand continues to grow stronger and stronger with time. Apart from innovative products, the quality of marketing and advertising as well as sales and customer-staff interaction, Apple places a heavy focus on customer experience in all these areas. In the tech industry where competition is intensely high, companies are placing an aggressive focus on customer experience to sway them away from their rivals. However, Apple’s strong competitive edge is also because of the matchless customer experience that it offers.

Customer loyalty:

Apple enjoys very strong customer loyalty as a leading computing and smartphone brand. The company’s focus on product quality and customer experience led to higher popularity and its customers are highly loyal to the brand. Most Apple customers buy several products from the company. It is not just the iPhone that enjoys strong popularity and customer loyalty but Apple has created a large range of interrelated products and services that include Mac, iPad, Apple Watch, Apple Music, and Apple TV+. Moreover, Apple products are not compatible with other products and it is also a reason that the company enjoys strong loyalty from its customers. The company has also introduced a large number of services and extraordinary privileges for its customers to grow the brand loyalty the company has been enjoying. In the current intensely competitive industry environment, gaining and retaining customer loyalty is difficult. However, in the case of Apple, its strong popularity and customer loyalty offer it an edge over its competitors. 

Premium product quality:

Product quality has remained a primary driver of popularity, demand, and sales for Apple. Worldwide the company is known mainly for its outstanding product quality. Whether the iPhone, Ipad, Mac, or other products, Apple offers outstanding quality in each of them, typically not matched by any of its rivals. Despite the premium prices of Apple products, the company has a large customer base worldwide which is mainly because the quality of its products and services is just so outstanding that the customers cannot find a substitute for them easily. With time, the company has grown its focus on innovation even stronger to offer its customers matchless products and experience. While on the one hand, product quality is a source of competitive advantage for the brand, on the other it is also one of the main differentiating factors that differentiate Apple from all its rivals in the market.

International sales and distribution network:

Apple has established a large and global sales and distribution network that enables the international sales and distribution of its products and services. The sales and distribution network of the company includes both physical and digital channels. Apart from its own e-commerce website, its products are also available on other e-commerce websites like Amazon and Flipkart.

 In this intensely competitive business environment, brands are offering their customers an omnichannel experience. Customers can purchase Apple products and services from Apple stores as well as online channels and from several authorized resellers worldwide. This has also led to increased availability of Apple products in various corners of the world.

Supply chain management:

Supply chain management is also an important source of competitive advantage for smartphone and computing brands. During the pandemic especially, the resilience of global supply chains has been put to test. However, Apple’s production network is supported by a strong supply chain and it was proved during the pandemic. The market cap of the company has continued to grow fast even when several leading markets are affected by Covid-19. The string supplier network of the company plays a leading role in helping the company grow its empire and strengthen its overall competitive position in the market.

The supply chains of smartphone and computing brands are like the backbones of their business and the resilience of their supply chains determines the competitive position of the business during a crisis. Apple has its supply chain located globally in various corners. A large part of its supply chain is located in the Asian region and particularly in countries including  China and Vietnam. However, despite its suppliers being globally scattered the company has managed its supplier relationships very well which has led to strong supply chain performance and overall faster market growth.

Human Resources:

The human capital of a technology company is among its leading sources of competitive advantage. The company has been known for its electric work culture and environment since the days of Steve Jobs. Things are known to move very fast at Apple whether it is regarding technological innovation or product development. In the days of Tim Cook also while the work culture at Apple is marked by less pressure and aggression, its focus on employee productivity and innovation has not diluted. All the leading technology companies including Apple and Microsoft or even Google and Amazon are known for hiring only the best. However, these companies also provide the most outstanding benefits to their employees including financial and non-financial incentives.

It is why there is heavy competition among candidates to earn a position at Apple. The leading technology brands including Apple and its rivals also compete with each other to attract and retain only the best talent. In the 21st century when innovation has become the leading driver of growth and the industry is characterized by too heavy competition, brands are in a race to hire the most talented candidates. Research has shown that the human capital of a company is an asset and the primary source of competitive advantage in which the foundation of most of their core competencies is led. As such most leading companies are focusing on managing their human capital strategically. 

Diversified product portfolio:

Apple has continued to grow its product portfolio strategically to increase its sources of revenue over time. While the iPhone continues to remain the main source of revenue for the company, the new sources of revenue whose weightage has grown in the last two years include services and wearables, home, and accessories. The company is strategically diversifying its product and services portfolio without deviating from its core focus. Last year, it released three new iPhone models apart from Apple TV+ and new Apple Watch models. While it has become the most trusted brand of wearables, the contribution of Apple services to the net revenue of the brand has also grown over the past two years. Services are now the second-largest source of revenue for Apple and that has helped it reduce its dependence on the core source iPhone. 

Financial Performance of Apple in last two years:

The graph above shows the total net revenue of Apple Inc. in billions of US dollars for the period between 2015 and 2019.

After experiencing strong growth in fiscal 2018 compared to 2017, Apple’s financial performance experienced a small decline in 2019. The total net revenue of the company declined by around 2% in 2019 compared to the previous year falling down to $260.2 billion from $265.6 billion in 2018. Of all the geographical regions, the decline was strongest in Greater China where the company experienced a decline of around 16% in net revenue during 2019 compared to the previous year. However, the contribution of Greater China to the net revenue of Apple was still significant at around 17%.

While net sales of iPhone in 2019 declined significantly, having a significant negative impact on the company’s overall net revenue, the net sales of services and wearables, home, and accessories grew and partially offset the impact from lower iPhone sales.  The net decline in the total net revenue of Apple was around 2% of $5.4 billion. Apart from the other things, there was an unfavorable impact of a stronger dollar on the net revenue of Apple. Apart from the iPhone, the rest product segments of Apple enjoyed improved performance during 2019 compared to the previous year. The net sales of the iPhone experienced a 14% decline and came down to $142.4 billion in 2019 compared to $164.9 billion in 2018. The wearables, home, and accessories segment enjoyed the highest growth in net sales, rising by 41% compared to the previous year. In 2018, Apple generated $17.4 billion from the sales of wearables, home, and accessories, and in 2019, its net sales from this segment grew to $24.5 billion. 

The total gross margin of Apple declined a little in 2019, falling to $98.4 billion from $101.8 billion in 2018. While Apple’s gross margin from products declined, its services, gross margin grew. Gross margin from products came down to $68.9 billion in 2019 compared to $77.7 billion in 2018, mainly due to weaker iPhone sales and a stronger dollar relative to foreign currencies. On the other hand, the services gross margin showed healthy growth, rising to $29.5 billion in 2019 from $24.16 billion in 2018, driven mainly by growth in net sales of services and a more varied services mix. The product gross margin percentage of Apple was 32.2% in 2019 compared to 34.4% in 2018. On the other hand, the services gross margin percentage of Apple rose to 63.7% in 2019 from 60.8% in 2018.

Main Drivers of Growth for Apple Inc.

Despite its declining iPhone sales during 2019, Apple managed to retain sales and revenue in its latest fiscal. Among the leading drivers of revenue for the company were services and wearables, home and accessories.

Apple has earned a major advantage in this area and while its services have continued to find more popularity and started making a significant contribution to the net sales of the company, it is also now a highly trusted brand of wearables and accessories. Earlier while the iPhone remained the major driver of sales and revenue for Apple, in 2019 iPhone sales slumped. However, Apple had done a very good job at shifting the pressure from one product segment to several. In this way, while the company reduced its dependence on the iPhone it also built new channels of growth.

During 2019, the company continued to diversify its services range adding Apple TV+ which also benefited product sales during the last quarter of fiscal 2019. The services mix of Apple during 2019 was very different from that during 2018. In 2019, the company also leveraged its services fixed cost structure apart from increased net sales which reflected in the form of increased services gross margin and gross margin percentage.

Five Operational Performance Objectives

To run an organization, a well defined set of  operations performance objectives is essential.  There are five basic performance objectives that are applicable to all types of business operations. These five basic operations objectives include cost, dependability, flexibility, quality and speed. There are both internal and external implications of these five performance objectives. All of these internal effects of these performance objectives has an impact on cost.


This is the first leading operational performance objective. It refers to consistent performance based on your customer’s expectations and it also affects customer satisfaction to a significant extent. However, the meaning of quality can vary across industries and businesses. Suppose there is an automobile business and there is a technology business. The same quality standards would not apply to both. Quality can acquire different meanings in different industrial environments. In some industries, the level of staff friendliness is a leading parameter to measure quality. On the other hand, product efficiency is the main indicator of quality for another. However, no matter whatever industry a business belongs to, customers appreciate quality and that cannot be denied. Quality can, therefore, have a direct and major influence on customer satisfaction as well as organizational performance. Nevertheless, quality is also related to a company’s image and apart from making certain things easier for the business like customer acquisition, it can also significantly increase an organization’s profitability by growing its popularity and that of its products.

Apple is a technology brand. Apart from its core product, iPhone, the company also makes markets and sells iPad, Mac as well as a large range of services. Apart from product quality, the overall customer experience also matters for Apple. It is a premium brand that sells premium products and services. However, in the case of Apple, its product quality is the main differentiator for the brand and differentiates its image from the competing products and brands. iPhone enjoys its own distinct and cult status among a vast range of smartphones available in the market which is currently filled with several smartphone makers. Price is also a dimension or quality for the company since its premium prices also signify higher product quality. The reason that the company enjoys heavy loyalty is that its superior product quality has helped it garner heavy popularity in the global markets. Since its foundation, the innovative product range of Apple has remained its primary driver of sales and popularity for the company. The company has always focused on product quality and customer experience and differentiated its brand image from the other brands in the market. Marketing is also an important dimension of product quality for Apple and the company’s branding strategy is significantly different from all other competing brands in the market.


As the industry has evolved speed has been more and more integral to business performance and growth. In fact, you cannot imagine an operational performance without speed. Now in nearly every industry speed matters just as much as quality. Customers want that products are delivered to their doorsteps faster. In this era where a large range of services are delivered and consumed online including a large range of technology and entertainment services, speed matters a lot and can sometimes be a major differentiating factor for a company. A company that brings ideas to the table and products to the shelves faster than its competitors usually finds itself ahead of the others in the market.  In some industries where services have to be consumed instantly, speed matters more than ever. Apart from that in some industries, businesses need to keep the shelf filled with the latest items in order to engage their customers and it is also a reason that speed is important.

As in the case of Apple, while speed may not have a direct impact on its business operations or on product quality, the company has always been remarkable in terms of fast-paced innovation and that has also helped the company acquire faster and superior growth. The technology and smartphone industry is marked by a lot of competition and innovation apart from being the leading differentiator for the technology brands is also the main driver of sales and growth for smartphone and technology brands. Every year Apple releases new models of iPhone and brings rapid updates to provide its customers a superior experience. Speed is important in the context of Apple’s sales, distribution, and marketing as well. Apart from that speed is also important in the context of services since worldwide customers want speedy, timely, and consistent delivery of the services they purchase. Brands like Apple spend a lot on research and development since fast-paced innovation is important to stay ahead of the competition and perform well in the market. Moreover, speed and consistency affect the popularity of brands like Apple and have a significant impact on the overall level of sales that the brand achieves each year.


Dependability or reliability is in itself considered a sign of quality in the digital era. Dependability, reliability, or trust are synonymous with brand equity which is an important strength for any industry-leading brand including Apple. However, there are several factors that affect dependability in each industry. For example, while the quality of raw materials and the final product will have a direct impact on the dependability of a business in the automobile industry, in transportation and several more industries like e-commerce it is the timeliness of delivery of products and services that will affect dependability. Keeping the promise you made to your customers also affects dependability. There is another factor that has kept growing in importance for businesses as well as customers in the twenty-first century and which also affects dependability is the overall level of customer experience. Brands that offer a superior customer experience overall are considered to be more dependable by the customers. Apple and Amazon both are two great examples that have maintained very high-level customer loyalty because they deliver superior customer experience.

Apple is considered a highly reliable brand that enjoys unmatched brand equity in the global markets. Its popularity and brand equity are very high throughout the globe from the United States to Europe and the Asia Pacific. The company apart from having a large customer base throughout the globe has maintained a very strong reputation. Right since its early days, the focus of Apple founder Steve Jobs was on delivering a superior customer experience which became the central pillar of Apple’s marketing and business strategy. The reliability of a brand is mainly defined by how much its customers love it. As in the case of Apple, while it is loved by a large and loyal customer base, its fan base is much larger. When it comes to Apple products and services, the level of quality that can be expected from the company is unquestionably much higher compared to the other competing players in the market. Whether the iPhone or the Mac, iPad, or Apple Watch, Apple products stand out because of their quality, and this continued focus of the brand on product quality as well as technological innovation has helped the brand evolve into a market-leading brand.


Flexibility means the ability to change what, how, and when the operations function does. There are four types of flexibility in general that are applicable to business operations. They include product/service flexibility, mix flexibility, volume flexibility, and delivery flexibility. Product/ service flexibility means the ability to introduce new or customized products or services. Mix flexibility means the ability to widen the product/services mix to cater to the customer needs better. Volume flexibility denotes the ability to change the output level to produce different quantities of products/services over time. Delivery flexibility on the other hand means the ability to change the timing of delivery. Overall, flexibility is an important aspect of operational performance and superior flexibility also denotes superior performance. Flexibility can also acquire different meanings in different industrial environments. For example, in a healthcare environment, the ability to introduce new types of treatment and to widen the range of available treatments or the ability to adjust more patients and reschedule appointments can all be a sign of flexibility. However, in the case of the automobile or retail industry, flexibility can mean different things.

As in the case of Apple, its flexibility is reflected in the large product/services mix it offers as well as its global expansion. Apart from its own distribution network that includes a large number of Apple stores located in the various corners of the globe, Apple also utilizes e-commerce sellers and other resellers to sell its products worldwide.  Apart from that Apple’s flexibility is also reflected in its fast-paced innovation. Its focus on innovation and flexibility in this area has helped the company grow its product/services mix larger and cater to varying customer segments and their expectations with higher efficiency.

Its flexibility is driven by several factors including its international distribution network, its technological infrastructure, a large pool of talented employees as well as its ability to understand customer needs and to deliver a seamless customer experience.


Cost in terms of operations performance mainly means the operating expenses incurred by businesses. However, the proportion of various operating costs can vary from industry to industry. For example, staffing costs may represent the largest costs for a transportation company but the costs of raw material may be the largest group of operating costs for an automobile brand. In the case of most companies, if their operating expenses are low, they can also keep the prices low for their customers. Not all companies compete in the market on the basis of price. Some companies compete on product quality, other companies compete on the basis of customer service and others on the basis of marketing. However, even the companies that do not compete on the basis of prices, they too are interested in keeping their operational costs low. If a company can save from its operating expenses it will help it increase its profits because a penny saved equals a penny gained. The way in which operations need to be managed in order to keep operating expenses low requires focusing on areas where the company incurs the highest operating expenses.

As in the case of Apple, it does not compete on prices. Instead, the company competes on quality and product quality demands that a company invests in sourcing quality raw materials and hires most-talented professionals.  Apple invests in all these areas and its raw material costs as well as employee expenses represent some of the leading expenses incurred by the company.  However, Apple enjoys a  strong gross margin on its products and services. The gross margin percentage that Apple enjoys on its services mix is also a lot higher than what it enjoys on the physical products.  During 2019, the gross margin percentage of the company on its services grew to 63.7% compared to 32.2% on the physical products.  Net operating expenses of the company reached $34.5 billion in 2019 compared to $30.9 billion in 2018. Over the last several years, one leading category of expenses that have continued to add to Apple’s operating expenses is the research and development expenses of the company. In fiscal 2019, the research and development expenses of Apple Inc grew to $16.22 billion as compared to $14.24 billion in 2018. However, even in terms of research and development, the main expenses of Apple are related to the employees working on research and development projects.

Analysis of Apple’s Operations based on the 4Vs model:

Operations and operational processes are like the fundamental building blocks of organizations that have a significant influence on the productivity of the organization and the quality of the organizational output as well. Focusing on operational efficiency has helped businesses find faster market growth as well as maximize output. Many times, if the efficiency of processes is low then it is mainly because the organization has adopted a poor operational design. Processes across business organizations and industries can differ significantly and that is why all processes must be managed differently. Some of the leading differences between various processes are due to the technologies and the level of know-how involved. Different processes require different production equipment as well as different skills and know-how. However, apart from these things, the difference also lies in the nature of the demand for the products and services these processes produce. There are four particular characteristics of demand that have a significant impact on process management and which are as follows:

  • The volume of the products and services produced
  • Variety of products and services produced
  • Variation in the demand for products and services.
  • Degree of visibility that customers have of the production of products and services

Volume of products and services:

Does the business being discussed produce a large amount of the same products and services or only various items in small volumes? If the volume of output is high, it indicates repeatability or high-level familiarity of the processes. Many times since a large business produces more and more of the same thing, it helps the business gain a significant competitive advantage compared to the smaller ones.

In the case of Apple, its core product is the iPhone and overtime Apple has expanded its product and services mix significantly to include many more products and services including the iPad, Apple Watch, Apple TV, and the large services mix. In terms of production of the products and services that apple sells, the company has gained a significant competitive advantage and the reason is that it uses specialized technology and raw material. Its leading position in the market, as well as its financial strength, allows it to use its bargaining power to source the best quality raw material from suppliers around the world at lower costs. The operational efficiency of Apple is also high because apart from adopting highly efficient processes, the company also employs the most talented professionals. Apart from that it also spends a lot each year on research and development. This has also helped it maximize its operational efficiency and output. Apple produces a large volume of iPhones, iPads, Mac as well as other products each year and places a significant focus on quality as well as customer experience. The product mix of Apple is limited to less than a dozen items that are produced by the company in very large volumes.  By producing a large volume of the same products, the company is able to utilize its production efficiency to manage its output level significantly well as well as maintain quality standards.

Variety of products and services produced:

Apple is now mainly a brand of smartphones but its business is not limited to only smartphones. The company also produces Mac, iPad, Apple Watch, and TV as well as a limited range of services. The company has substantially expanded its products and services mix over the past several years. Moreover, the company does not offer as much variety as the other smartphone brands like Samsung, Oppo, or Xiaomi which release several models and ranges each year. Apple’s smartphone brand is iPhone and while the company has released several models till now since it started making smartphones, the range still only includes iPhone and iPhones 11 and 12 are the latest models in this range.

Variation in demand of products and services:

In fact, demand variation is among the most challenging aspects of business operations. It is easier for businesses to manage the processes when the level of demand is predictably constant. However, when demand can fluctuate significantly, then managing processes becomes somewhat complex. If demand is predictably constant, it is easier to gear resources to efficiently cater to the existing demand, Moreover, businesses can plan operational activities including marketing and sales or after-sales services in advance.

On the other hand, if the level of demand varies significantly or can be highly variable or even unpredictable, then resources will need to be adjusted over time. What is even worse is that if demand can soar unpredictably, extra resources need to be devoted to the process such that it provides a capacity cushion that can easily absorb the unexpected demand. Let’s take a simple example of seasonal variations in e-commerce. Demand for a large range of products surges suddenly during the festive season including gifts, electronics, home decor products as well as fashion products. Another important factor that can cause a variation in demand for specific products and services is the level of competition in the market. If the overall level of competition in the market is very high, the companies have to care a lot to maintain the demand of their products and services and that may require a large annual investment in marketing as well as research and development. Apart from that in order to maintain the level of demand for their products and services, the companies like Apple also have to focus a lot on customer experience, innovation, as well as product quality since any decline in these areas, can lead to a corresponding decline in customer loyalty as well as demand.

The demand for Apple products can also undergo variations and these variations can be caused by several factors, the most prominent among which are competition and economic factors. The sales of Apple products can be affected by economic fluctuations since Apple mainly sells premium products and these products are costlier as compared to the rival products and brands in the market. Apart from that, the level of competition in the smartphone industry has grown too high. Samsung, Oppo, Xiaomi, and Huawei are among the leading competitors of Apple’s iPhone, but apart from these, there are other brands too that compete in the smartphone market. It is why the demand for iPhone fluctuates from year to year. Apple has filled this gap through the expansion of its services mix as well as through consistent focus on innovation. It continues to update its iPhone models as well as release new ones. This is also a reason the company has kept increasing its R&D expenses each year. However, there are also several factors that have helped Apple minimize uncertainty or variations related to demand and they include its focus on customer experience, product innovation as well as marketing, and customer relations.

The demand for the iPhone was lower in 2019 compared to 2018. The increased competition was one of the primary reasons that the company experienced reduced demand for iPhone during 2019. Samsung is also equally obsessive about innovation and continues to increase its research and development related expenses each year. Its galaxy range of smartphones is among the leading rivals of the iPhone. Moreover, there are other brands like Huawei and Xiaomi that have brought cheaper options for customers and are also loaded with innovative and smart features that can easily attract customers. However, the iPhone still enjoys a market-leading position among smartphones and the reason is that Apple never compromises on quality or innovation. This reduces the scope for negative variation in the demand for iPhone as well as other Apple products and services to a very large extent.

Visibility of processes:

This is also a rather complex aspect of business operations to grasp. It denotes that aspect of business operations that is easily visible to the customers. The businesses that work with consumers directly may have more visible processes. For example, the healthcare and retail industry have more visible processes. However, the same is not true about an automobile business. Customers generally do not have a very clear view of the production and distribution processes of automobile brands. They cannot peep into everything that goes on before the finalized cars reach the showrooms. This is the only aspect of automobile operations that they are generally familiar with. It is also true about businesses like Apple inc. However, when it comes to businesses like Amazon or even Facebook, these are highly customer-facing businesses or customers have very high visibility into their operations. These are also some businesses for which transparency and accountability matters a lot.

As in the case of Apple, it is a company that is known for maintaining a very high level of confidentiality right since its foundation. No one is generally able to know what’s going on inside Apple whether it is related to research and development. Apple stores are the only leading customer-facing aspect of its business operations. Otherwise, in almost all aspects of its operations, Apple maintains a very high level of confidentiality. It is not just an operational strategy but also a part of Apple’s organizational culture. For the past few years, Apple has also stopped releasing the number of iPhones and Macs it sold each year as well as its marketing expenses. Moreover, people can get a glimpse of Apple products and services after they have been released and not before that. This rule has been being followed at Apple since the times of Steve Jobs. So, overall the level of visibility that the customers get to enjoy into Apple’s operations is really very low. However, the trust of customers has always remained important for Apple and therefore the company apart from its brand image and accountability in its operations as well as that of its suppliers tries to maintain the highest degree of accountability in all the other aspects of its business operations.